Bible Research


Presented by: The Master's table

This research information is very informative for the bible student
who wants to understand the making and history of the Christian bible.
You also might want to read our article that is based on the Bible's history.
If so just click on the links below.

Credibility of the bible and JKV 1611 vs. NKJV

Although the first Bible printed in America was done in the native Algonquin Indian Language (by John Eliot in 1663), the first English language Bible was the Geneva Bible that was brought over to America and was the only accepted Bible for over a hundred years. The first English language Bible to be printed in America (by: Robert Aitken in 1782) was a King James Version. In 1791, Isaac Collins vastly improved upon the quality and size of the typesetting of American Bibles and produced the first "Family Bible" printed in America -- also a King James Version. That same year Isaiah Thomas published the first Illustrated Bible printed in America -- also the King James Version.

In 1841, the English Hexapla New Testament was printed. This wonderful textual comparison tool shows in parallel columns: The 1380 Wycliff, 1534 Tyndale, 1539 Great, 1557 Geneva, 1582 Rheims, and 1611 King James versions of the entire New Testament -- with the original Greek at the top of the page.

Consider the following textual comparison of John 3:16 as they appear in many of these famous printings of the English Bible:

· 1st Ed. King James (1611): "For God so loued the world, that he gaue his only begotten Sonne: that whosoeuer beleeueth in him, should not perish, but haue euerlasting life."

· Rheims (1582): "For so God loued the vvorld, that he gaue his only-begotten sonne: that euery one that beleeueth in him, perish not, but may haue life euerlasting"

· Geneva (1557): "For God so loueth the world, that he hath geuen his only begotten Sonne: that none that beleue in him, should peryshe, but haue euerlasting lyfe."

· Great Bible (1539): "For God so loued the worlde, that he gaue his only begotten sonne, that whosoeuer beleueth in him, shulde not perisshe, but haue euerlasting lyfe."

· Tyndale (1534): "For God so loveth the worlde, that he hath geven his only sonne, that none that beleve in him, shuld perisshe: but shuld have everlastinge lyfe."

· Wycliff (1380): "for god loued so the world; that he gaf his oon bigetun sone, that eche man that bileueth in him perisch not: but haue euerlastynge liif,"

It is possible to go back to manuscripts earlier than Wycliff, but the language is not easily recognizable. For example, the Anglo-Saxon manuscript of 995 AD renders John 3:16 as: "God lufode middan-eard swa, dat he seade his an-cennedan sunu, dat nan ne forweorde de on hine gely ac habbe dat ece lif."

(Click here to view Wycliff 's bible and a partial leaf which shows the same style.)

Timeline of Bible Translation History:
1,400 BC: The first written Word of God: The Ten Commandments delivered to Moses.
500 BC: Completion of All Original Hebrew Manuscripts which make up The 39 Books of the Old Testament.
200 BC: Completion of the Septuagint Greek Manuscripts which contain The 39 Old Testament Books AND 14 Apocrypha Books.

The first known inscriptions of Aramaic date to the late tenth or early ninth century B.C. In a phenomenal wave of expansion, Aramaic spread over Palestine and Syria and large tracts of Asia and Egypt, replacing many languages, including Akkadian and Hebrew. For about one thousand years it served as the official and written language of the Near East, officially beginning with the conquests of the Assyrian Empire, which had adopted Aramaic as its official language, replacing Akkadian.

Aramaic can be dated to five periods, dating from inscriptions that go back to the first millennium B.C. :

Old Aramaic, 925-700
Official or Imperial (Assyrian) Aramaic, 700-200 (when the language was still uniform)
Middle Aramaic, 200 B.C. - 200 A.D.
Late Aramaic, 200-700
Modern Aramaic, 700 to our time

Modern Aramaic, in its various dialects, is spoken in modern-day Iraq, Iran, Syria, Israel, Lebanon, and the various Western countries to which the native speakers have emigrated, including Russia, Europe, Australia and the United States.

1st Century AD: Completion of All Original Greek Manuscripts which make up The 27 Books of the New Testament.

315 AD: Athenasius, the Bishop of Alexandria, identifies the 27 books of the New Testament which are today recognized as the canon of scripture.
382 AD: Jerome's Latin Vulgate Manuscripts Produced which contain All 80 Books (39 Old Test. + 14 Apocrypha + 27 New Test).
500 AD: Scriptures have been Translated into Over 500 Languages.
600 AD: LATIN was the Only Language Allowed for Scripture.
995 AD: Anglo-Saxon (Early Roots of English Language) Translations of The New Testament Produced.
1384 AD: Wycliffe is the First Person to Produce a (Hand-Written) manuscript Copy of the Complete Bible; All 80 Books.
1455 AD: Gutenberg Invents the Printing Press; Books May Now be mass-Produced Instead of Individually Hand-Written. The First Book Ever Printed is Gutenberg's Bible in Latin.

1516 AD: Erasmus Produces a Greek/Latin Parallel New Testament.
1522 AD: Martin Luther's German New Testament.
1526 AD: William Tyndale's New Testament; The First New Testament printed in the English Language.
1535 AD: Myles Coverdale's Bible; The First Complete Bible printed in the English Language (80 Books: O.T. & N.T. & Apocrypha).
1537 AD: Tyndale-Matthews Bible; The Second Complete Bible printed in English. Done by John "Thomas Matthew" Rogers (80 Books).
1539 AD: The "Great Bible" Printed; The First English Language Bible Authorized for Public Use (80 Books).
1560 AD: The Geneva Bible Printed; The First English Language Bible to add Numbered Verses to Each Chapter (80 Books).
1568 AD: The Bishops Bible Printed; The Bible of which the King James was a Revision (80 Books).
1609 AD: The Douay Old Testament is added to the Rheims New Testament (of 1582) Making the First Complete English Catholic Bible; Translated from the Latin Vulgate (80 Books).

1611 AD: The King James Bible Printed; Originally with 80 Books. The Apocrypha was Officially Removed in 1885 Leaving Only 66 Books.
1782 AD: Robert Aitken's Bible; The First English Language Bible (KJV) Printed in America.
1791 AD: Isaac Collins and Isaiah Thomas Respectively Produce the First Family Bible and First Illustrated Bible Printed in America. Both were King James Versions, with All 80 Books.
1808 AD: Jane Aitken's Bible (Daughter of Robert Aitken); The First Bible to be Printed by a Woman.
1833 AD: Noah Webster's Bible; After Producing his Famous Dictionary, Webster Printed his Own Revision of the King James Bible.
1841 AD: English Hexapla New Testament; an Early Textual Comparison showing the Greek and 6 Famous English Translations in Parallel Columns.
1846 AD: The Illuminated Bible; The Most Lavishly Illustrated Bible printed in America. A King James Version, with All 80 Books.
1885 AD: The "English Revised Version" Bible; The First Major English Revision of the KJV.
1901 AD: The "American Standard Version"; The First Major American Revision of the KJV.
1971 AD: The "New American Standard Bible" (NASB) is Published as a "Modern and Accurate Word for Word English Translation" of the Bible.

1973 AD: The "New International Version" (NIV) is Published as a "Modern and Accurate Phrase for Phrase English Translation" of the Bible.
1982 AD: The "New King James Version" (NKJV) is Published as a "Modern English Version Maintaining the Original Style of the King James."
2002 AD: The English Standard Version (ESV) is Published as a translation to bridge the gap between the accuracy of the NASB and the readability of the NIV.

This English Bible History Article & Timeline is ©2002 by author & editor: John L. Jeffcoat III.
Special thanks is also given to Dr. Craig H. Lampe for his valuable contributions to the text. This page may be freely reproduced or quoted, in whole or in part, in print or electronically, under the one condition that prominent credit must be given to "WWW.GREATSITE.COM" as the source. Roman Catholicism [A Study Outline] By Pastor Steve Harmon Th.G., B.S., Th.M., Th.D. (1991)

I. History - Constantine
A. Constantine followed the historical church period from 100 A.D. through 313 A.D. There are ten persecutions of the church by the end of this church period.
1. Nero (64 - 68) - Killed Peter and Paul.
2. Domitian (81 - 96) - Killed thousands of believers. Banished John to Patmos.
3. Trajan (98-117) - The first to pass laws against Christianity.
4. Pius (137-161) - Killed Polycarp, a disciple of John.
5. Marcus Aurelius (161-180) - Thought Christianity an absurd superstition. Beheaded Justin Martyr.
6. Severus (193-211) - Killed Origen's father.
7. Thracian (235-238) - Brutal barbarian who commanded all Christian leaders to die.
8. Decius (249-251) - Determined to exterminate Christianity.
9. Valerian (253-260) - Killed Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage.
10. Diocleatian (284-305) - Last and most severe persecution. For ten years believers were hunted in caves and forests. They were burned, thrown to wild beasts, and put to death by every torture cruelty could devise. But Diocletian's own wife and daughter accepted Christ.

B. The next historical period saw the "marrying" of the pagan religions and Christianity.
1. They were given over to many Greek idols, the two most prominent were:
a. Baccas - the god of revelry.
b. Asclepius - the god of healing.
C. Rome demanded cooperation of all groups under their reign.
D. Constantine "married" paganism and the church, the world and the church.
E. Constantine was the son of a Roman emperor. He felt that he should have the throne. He amassed an army and headed for Rome.
F. Constantine needed the backing of the Christians, as well as the pagans, which he already had.
G. October 28, 312 A.D. at the Battle of Milvian Bridge on the Tiber River, he had a vision; he saw a sign in the sky, which said "In this sign conquer."
H. Constantine vowed if the Catholic God would help him to win this battle, he would become a Catholic.
I. Constantine, carefully described the cross he saw, and had it placed on the shield of the soldiers.
J. The cross was an Egyptian "ankh" a T with a circle on top. This is the sign of the sun God, and Tammuz.
(See History of the cross at… http://www.masters-table.org/pagan/cross.htm)
K. He won the battle, took Rome, and attributed it to the sign.
L. In 313 A.D., Constantine signed the edict of toleration (no more persecution of the church). He declared himself to be the "Protector of Christianity".

M. Constantine ordered the production of 50 copies of the Catholic Scriptures.
1. Eusebious produced these Bibles.
2. He used the Hexapolis. This was a parallel Bible with six versions in it. He used the most corrupt of them.
3. This is the origin of false Bibles.

4. The Siniaticus and the Vaticanus were written during this period.
a. These are often called the Septuagint.
b. The Septuagint was suppose to be a Greek translation of the Old Testament, that Jesus quoted from.
c. There are NO earlier versions of the Septuagint.
II. Pagan Practices Married to the Church of Rome
The Church that never changes has been in a constant state of change since is inception in the third century. Here is a partial list of added pagan practices complete with the dates that they were started.

A. 312 A.D. Symbol of the cross (tau) for the church.
B. Cir-300 Infant baptism.
C. 300 A.D. Prayers for the dead.
D. 300 A.D. Making the sign of the cross.
E. 375 A.D. Worship of angels.
F. 375 A.D. Worship of saints.
G. 394 A.D. Mass instituted.
(See Sun worship as Christian at…http://www.masters-table.org/pagan/sun2.htm)

H. 431 A.D. Worship of Mary.
(See Mary worship at http://www.masters-table.org/pagan/queen.htm)

I. 500 A.D. Priests dressing differently from laymen.
J. 526 A.D. Extreme unction (Last Rights).
K. 593 A.D. Doctrine of purgatory.
L. 600 A.D. Services conducted in Latin.
M. 600 A.D. Prayers conducted to Mary.
N. 607 A.D. Boniface the third made the first Pope.
O. 709 A.D. Kissing of the Pope's foot.
P. 786 A.D. Worshipping of images and relics.
Q. 850 A.D. Use of Holy Water.
R. 995 A.D. Canonization of dead saints (You may now pray to them according to the Church of Rome).
S. 1079 A.D. Celibacy of the priesthood.
T. 1090 A.D. Rosary (prayer beads instituted which is pagan).
U. 1215 A.D. Transubstantiation (The wafer becomes the literal flesh of Jesus Christ).
V. 1220 A.D. Adoration of the wafer (host)
(See Eucharist worship at http://www.masters-table.org/pagan/sun1.htm

W. 1229 A.D. Bible is forbidden to the laymen.
X. 1414 A.D. Cup forbidden to be touched during Holy Communion.
Y. 1439 A.D. Doctrine of seven Sacraments affirmed.
Z. 1508 A.D. The Ave Maria approved. (Hail to Mary).
a. 1534 A.D. Jesuit order founded.
b. 1545 A.D. Tradition granted equal authority with the Bible.
c. 1546 A.D. Apocryphal books placed in the Bible.
d. 1854 A.D. Immaculate conception of Mary.
e. 1864 A.D. Syllabus of errors proclaimed.
f. 1870 A.D. Infallibility of the Pope declared.
g. 1935 A.D. Assumption of the Virgin Mary.
h. 1965 A.D. Mary proclaimed the Mother of the Church.
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Below you will find the Reformation Time line broke down in the following…
I. The Pre-Reformation Period (1215 - 1515)
II. The Reformation Period (1516 - 1563)
III. The Post-Reformation Period (1564 - 1689)

I. The Pre-Reformation Period (1215 - 1515)
1215--Signing of Magna Carta; English barons force King John to agree to a statement of their rights
1290--Edward I expells all Jews from England
1291--Sacreans (Muslims) capture last Christian stronghold in Palestine; end of Crusades after 200 years
1295--England's Model Parliament-Edward I summons bishops, knights, and burgesses from all parishes for first representative parliament
1302--"Unam Sanctam," papal bull of Pope Boniface VIII, asserts papal supremacy over every human being King Philip IV of France convenes first Estates-General (Parliament) with all estates represented
1306--England expels 100,000 Jews who remained after Edward expulsion order of 1290
1309--Pope Clement, a Frenchman, move papal court to Avignon, France, beginning "The Babylonian Captivity."
1310--England's barons force Edward II to appoint lords ordainers to help him rule. Parliament rules taxation shall be imposed only by Parliament
1314--Battle of Bannockburn assures independence of Scotland-30,000 Scotsmen under Robert Bruce VIII rout 100,000 led by Edward II
1318--At Battle of Dundalk, Ireland's Edward Bruce killed three years after being proclaimed king
1327--Edward II is killed in prison; Isabella's 14-year-old son becomes Edward III
1328--Louis IV invades Italy and declares Pope John XXII deposed for heresy
1330--John Wycliffe born in Wycliffe-on-Tees. Edward III seizes power, ends regencey of Isabella and Mortimer
1337--Beginning of "Hundred Years War" between England and France-Edward III assumes title of King of France; French king Philip VI contests England's claims to Normandy
1338--Declaration of Rhense-Electors of Holy Roman Empire can select emperor without papal intervention
1341--English Parliament divided into Upper House (Lords) and Lower House (Commons)
1346--Battle of Crecy establishes England as military power; English longbowmen change face of warfare
1347-1351--The Black Death (bubonic plague) devastates Europe, killing as many as two-thirds of the population.
1348--Black Death reaches England
1349--Death of William of Ockham, English philosopher, who sowed seeds of independence of church and state
1351--England removes Pope's power to give English benefices to foreigners
1353--Parliament's Statue of Praemunrie forbids appeals to the Pope.
1356--Edward, the Black Prince of Wales, destroys French army at Battle of Poitiers. "The Golden Bull" of Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV transforms empire from monarchy into aristocratic federation to last 450 years.
1362--English becomes the authorized language of the law courts; French still used for legal documents. Piers Plowman written by English poet over next 30 years. Palace of Popes at Avignon completed after 28 years of construction.
1366--Parliament refuses to pay feudal tribute to Pope.
1370--Wycliffe's First Presentation of his doctrine on the Eucharist; he clarifies a theme which is later enshrined as a central doctrine of the Reformation. John Ball in England preaches man's natural equality
1374--John of Gaunt returns from French wars to become leader of the state.
1377--Rioting ends Wycliffe's trial at St. Paul's and the "The Babylonian Captivity" ends.
Pope Gregory XI issues five bulls against Wycliffe, and Wycliffe agrees to "house arrest" at Oxford.
Leaving Avignon, Pope Gregory XI moves papal court to Rome; ending the "Babylonian Captivity."
1378--Queen Mother ends Wycliffe's trial at Lambeth Palace. The Great Schism divides the Catholic Church for 39 years when two opposing popes are elected-Pope Urban V in Rome and Pope Clement VII in Avignon.{Avignon }
1378--Pope Urban VI presides in Rome whilst Pope Clement VII presides in Avignon.

1381--John Wycliffe publishes Confession, denying that the "substance" of bread and wine are miraculously changed during the Eucharist; Wycliffe withdraws from public to Lutterworth.The Peasant Revolt; 30,000 rioters converge on London; ends when Wat Tyler, their leader, is betrayed and killed.
1381-1384--Wycliffe, with the assistance of his aides, intensifies his work on an English translation of Bible (from the Latin Vulgate not the Biblical Greek and Hebrew); this is the first translation of the Bible into the English tongue.
1382--Blackfriars Synod condemns Wycliffe's writings, followed by purge of Wycliffites at Oxford.
1383--Wycliffe, "morning star of the Reformation", dies on New Year's Eve.
1387--Chaucer begins work on The Canterbury Tales.
1389--Statute of Provisors makes papal appointments in England invalid.
1393--Second Statue of Praemunrie prohibits introduction of papal bulls.
1399--John of Gaunt dies; Richard II confiscates his estates; John Gaunt's son, Henry of Bolingbroke, returns from exile and is acclaimed by Parliament as King Henry IV; Richard II dies a year later in prison.
1414--Sir Jon Oldcastle (Lord Cobham), disciple of Wycliffe, burned at stake.

1415--The Council of Constance condemns Wycliffe on 267 different heresies. At Battle of Agincourt, Henry V leads English archers in victory over larger French cavalry. Council of Constance condemns Wycliffe of 267 heresies and demands that John Hus recant; he refuses and is burned at the stake.
1428--At papal command, remains of Wycliffe dug up, burned, and scattered on the river Swift
1431--Jeanne d'Arc (Joan of Arc) burned as a witch at Rouen
1453--Sack of Constantinople by the Turks; Christian refugees are welcomed into Florence bring their libraries, including ancient copies of the Greek Septuagint, with them; this encourages the revival of "New Learning" throughout western Europe and will make possible Erasmus's ground breaking work on the Greek New Testament (the basis of the Textus Receptus) End of Hundred Years War between England and France.
1455--Gutenberg completes printing the Bible using movable type (first printing of the Bible in any language); the invention of the commercial printing press revolutionizes how knowledge and information are shared; it proves to be an essential and powerful tool in spreading the Gospel. War of Roses begin in England
1463--Turks capture Bosnia.
1469--Erasmus born
1473--Copernicus born
1476--William Caxton sets up printing press at Westminster
1478--Spanish Inquisition persecutes Jews, Muslims, and heretics
1480--Ferdinand and Isabella appoint Inquisition against heresy among converted Jews

1483--Luther is born at Eisleben (November 10) and battle of Bosworth on August 22 ends England's 15-year Wars of the Roses; Henry VII crowned first king of 117-year Tudor dynasty
1491--Henry VIII born
1492-- Profession of publisher emerges, consisting of typefounder, printer, and bookseller. Inquisitor-general Torquemada gives Spanish Jews three months to convert or leave country; 200,000 Jews are expelled.
1493--Maximilian I becomes Holy Roman Emperor. The pope divides the New World between Spain and Portugal
1494--William Tyndale is born
1496--Menno Simons born
1497--The College of Cardinals discusses a church bill condemning "licentious clergy," but the idea is soon dropped. Albrecht Durer paints Apocalypse.
1498--Savonarola burned at the stake for heresy in Florence.
1499--War between Swabian League and Swiss Cantons. Swiss victory forces Treaty of Basel granting Swiss independence, and Granada's Moors revolt as Inquisitor de Cisneros introduces forced wholesale Christian conversion.
1500--Pope Alexander VI proclaims a Year of Jubilee; imposes a tithe for crusade against Turks.
1501--Music printed for the first time by use of movable type. Papal bull orders the burning of any books questioning Church's authority.
1502--University of Wittenberg established by Frederick, Elector of Saxony.
1503--Canterbury Cathedral completed after 436 years of construction.
1505--John Knox , the leader of the Scottish Reformation, is born.
1506--William Tyndale (age 12?) enters Magdalen College at Oxford; as a youth "singularly addicted to the scriptures", he reads the Bible in English (translating from the Latin Vulgate) to his fellow students (11 years prior to Luther's 95 Thesis).
1507--Martin Luther ordained and celebrates first Mass. Diet of Constance recognizes unity of Holy Roman Empire.
1509--Henry VIII assumes English throne and marries Catherine of Aragon.
Luther visits Rome. --- John Calvin, the Swiss Reformer, is born in Noyon, France and Erasmus writes Praise of Folly at Thomas More's home.
1511--Pope Julius forms Holy League with Venice and Aragon to drive French out of city; Henry VIII joins Holy League
1512--William Tyndale completes his B.A. at Oxford.
1513--Giovanni de Medici becomes Pope Leo X-"one of most severe trials to which God ever subjected his church" Peasant and labor rebellions spread eastward from Switzerland. Henry VIII conducts brief invasion of France.
1515--Tyndale completes his M.A. at Oxford and is ordained, but refuses to enter monastic orders. Thomas Wolsey is appointed Cardinal and Lord Chancellor of England.

II. The Reformation Period (1516 - 1563)
Erasmus publishes his edition of Greek-Latin New Testament, Novum Instrumentum; this translation powerfully demonstrated the corruption of the Latin Vulgate's text; Erasmus promotes the translation of the Bible into vernacular tongues for reading by the plowboy and the "simplest woman." Pope Julius II convenes the Lateran Council to undertake reforms in abuses of Church in Rome. Sir Thomas More writes Utopia.
1517--Martin Luther posts 95 theses in protest against saleable indulgences. Erasmus publishes anti-war tract. Tetzel hired by Albert of Mainz to sell indulgences.
1518--At meeting of Augustinians in Heidelberg, Luther defends his theology; later he appears before Cardinal Cajetan at Augsburg, but refuses to recant; in December, Frederick the Wise protects Luther from being handed over to Rome.
1519--Luther questions papal infallibility in a debate, and Luther begins New Testament sermon series, signaling new era of Biblical preaching. Zwingli begins New Testament sermons; Swiss reformation is born. Charles V (of Spain) succeeds Maximilian as Holy Roman Emperor.
1520--Papal bull "Exsurge Domine" gives Luther 60 days to recant or be excommunicated; writes 3 seminal documents: To the Christian Nobility, On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church, and The Freedom of a Christian; burns papal bull and canon law.
1521--Cambridge students form a study-group at the White Horse Tavern Little Bilney, William Tyndale, John Frith, and Thomas Cranmer are among them. Luther is Excommunicated by the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem; at Diet of Worms in April, he refuses to recant writings, and edict (in May) condemns him as heretic and outlaw; he is "kidnapped" and hidden at Wartburg Castle; begins translating the New Testament into German. Religious unrest in Wittenberg: private masses abolished, Karlstadt serves Communion in both elements, religious statues destroyed. Pope titles Henry VIII "Defender of the Faith" for attacking Luther's views of the sacraments. Lutheran books appear in England. "Zwickau prophets," early Anabaptists, arrive in Wittenberg. Pope Leo X dies, succeeded by Hadrian VI. Carlstadt celebrates first Protestant communion at Wittenburg. Diet of Worms; Luther refuses to recant; gets backing of German princes; begins German translation of Bible.
1521-1523--William Tyndale begins teaching at Little Sodbury; disputes with local clergy and is arraigned on charges of heresy; translates Erasmus's Enchiridion
1522--Anabaptist movement begins in Germany. Stump and Reublin challenge paying of tithes. Luther introduces German liturgy in Wittenburg.
1523--Tyndale resides with Humphrey Monmouth in London. 1524--Tyndale seeks patronage of Bishop. Tunstall and is rebuffed; then, assisted by Monmouth, he travels to Germany and registers at the University of Wittenburg.
1524--Luther debates Karlstadt on the Lord's Supper. Erasmus publishes On Freedom of the Will. Peasant Wars breaks out in southern Germany. Diet of Nuremberg fails to enforce Edict of Worms condemning Luther.

1525--In Cologne, Tyndale prepares to print an English New Testament; but he is discovered and escapes with only a few printed portions. Anabaptist movement begins in Zürich, spreads to Germany; First Zürich disputation with those opposed to infant baptism; First believer's baptism in Zürich; Denck banished from Nuremberg for views on Lord's Supper; First Anabaptist congregation of 35 converts established in Zollikon; First imprisonment of Anabaptists occurs in Zürich; they escape. Luther marries Katherine von Bora; writes Bondage of the Will (against Erasmus). Charles V defeats Francis I; Elector Frederick the Wise dies; France makes pact with Suleiman I.
1526--Tyndale completes the printing of New Testament (in Worms); (It is the first printing of the New Testament in English and the first English translation of the scriptures from the Biblical Greek); smuggled copies of his New Testaments are soon being circulated throughout England. Cardinal Wolsey presides at a massive burning of "Lutheran" books. Reformation spreads to Sweden and Denmark. League of Torgau formed; First Diet of Speyer postpones enforcement of Edict of Worms. Erasmus publishes the works of St. Augustine.
1527--Bishop Tunstall orders the purchase and burning of all the testaments; but this serves only to finance Tyndale's second edition of the New Testament. The German and Spanish Imperial troops of Charles V sack Rome. Basel orders corporeal punishment and confiscation of property for adult baptism or sheltering Anabaptists. First Protestant university (Marburg) founded. Plague strikes Wittenberg.
1527-1530--English agents seek to capture Tyndale on the Continent; he keeps moving and continues to translate and write.
1528--Reformation established in Bern. Swabian League authorizes military division of 400 horsemen to scout for Anabaptists. Thomas Bilney, respected Cambridge preacher and "Lutheran sympathizer," is dragged from his pulpit and imprisoned.
1529--Tyndale publishes Obedience of a Christian Man; Sir Thomas More begins writing against Tyndale and Luther. (Dialogue) Henry VIII dismisses Lord Chancellor Thomas Wolsey for failing to obtain the Pope's consent to his divorce from Catherine of Aragon; Sir Thomas More appointed Lord Chancellor; Henry VIII summons the "Reformation Parliament" and begins to cut the ties with the Church of Rome. Reformation becomes official in Basel. Diet of Speyer-Luther's followers name Protestants. (first use of the term.) Luther and Zwingli attend Marburg Colloquy, but no agreement reached on the Lord's Supper. Tyrolean Anabaptists flea homeland for Moravia. Diet of Speyer restores death penalty for rebaptizing. Turks lay siege to Vienna.

1530--Tyndale's translation of the first five books of the Old Testament appears in England (printed in Worms); he also publishes Practice of Prelates. Hoffman baptizes 300 Anabaptists in Emden and sends lay preachers to Netherlands. Luther, as outlaw, cannot attend the Diet of Augsburg, held in attempt to end religious division in the empire; Melanchthon presents Augsburg Confession, a statement of Lutheran beliefs. Protestants form Schmalkaldic League against Emperor Charles V.
1531--Tyndale meets Henry VIII's agent Steven Vaughan, but declines the king's invitation to return to England; Tyndale's translation of the Book of Jonah and his Exposition of the first Epistle of St. John are printed; Tyndale responds to Thomas More's Dialogue, with An Answer. Thomas Bilney is burned at stake. Bullinger succeeds Zwingli and publishes first book against Anabaptists. Zwingli angles for French support for the Reformation by allowing Swiss mercenaries to be hired. Dressed in battle armor, Zwingli joins the forces on October 11 and is killed in battle.
1532--Thomas More responds to Tyndale's An Answer with his Confutation; Tyndale, choosing to spend his energies in more essential endeavors, breaks off debate with More. English clergy submit to Henry VIII. Calvin starts Protestant movement in France; publishes his first work-a commentary on Seneca's De Clementia. Diet of Regensburg and Peace of Nuremberg guarantee religious toleration in face of Turkish threat.
1533--Tyndale's translation of Erasmus's Enchiridion and his revision of chapters five, six, and seven of Matthew's Gospel are printed; his beloved friend, John Frith, is burned at the stake in Smithfield; Thomas Cranmer appointed Archbishop of Canterbury; (This effectly ends clerical celibacy among Anglicans, as Cranmer is twice-married) The Act in Restraint of Appeals prohibits appeals to the bishop of Rome. Henry VIII's marriage to Catherine is declared void; Anne Boleyn crowned Queen. Calvin and Nicolas Cop flee Paris. At about this time Calvin undergoes a "sudden conversion." Hutter joins Moravian group who become known as Hutterites.
1534--Tyndale's revised New Testament is printed; he moves into Thomas Poyntz's English merchants' boarding house in Antwerp (English House) Pope Paul III, the father of three illegitimate children, comes to power. Luther completes translation of Bible into German. Act of Supremacy Henry VIII establishes himself as Supreme Head of Church and Clergy of England. Ignatius Loyola founds Society of Jesus to spread Counter Reformation. (The Jesuit order, or the army of the Pope.) The word Jesuit is ascribed by its opponents as crafty, intriguing, or an equivocating person: Strassburg decrees that Anabaptists must leave the city.
1535--King's agent Henry Phillips arrives in Antwerp and "befriends" Tyndale, then arranges to have him arrested while Thomas Poyntz is out of town; Tyndale is cast into Vilvoorde prison near Brussels. Myles Coverdale, a close aide of Tyndale, translates the portions of the Old Testament not completed by Tyndale (relying heavily on Tyndale's early drafts) and publishes the "Coverdale Bible"; This is the first printing of the entire Bible in the English language. Thomas More and Cardinal Fisher beheaded for opposing Henry VIII. Anabaptist uprising at Münster put down, and Anabaptists executed. Charles V conquers Tunis and frees 20,000 Christian slaves; Emperor forms Catholic Defense League. France makes pact with Suleiman I.

1536--Following a fifteen month imprisonment William Tyndale is strangled and burned at stake for heresy. (6th October) Luther agrees to Wittenberg Concord on the Lord's Supper, in an attempt to resolve differences with other reformers, but the Zwinglians do not accept it. Denmark and Norway become Lutheran; and Erasmus dies. Menno Simons breaks with Rome; becomes Anabaptist leader in Netherlands. Calvin is persuaded by Farel to remain in Geneva; publishes the first edition of Institutes of the Christian Religion. Henry VIII dissolves 376 monasteries and nunneries.
1537--John Rogers, a close aide of Wm. Tyndale, publishes the second complete English Bible. Because the major part of this Bible was the translation of Tyndale, whose writings had been condemned by the English authorities, it is published under the pseudonym "Thomas Matthew". The "Matthew's Bible" is a composite made up of Tyndale's Pentateuch and New Testament (1534-1535 edition) and Coverdale's Bible and a small amount of Roger's own translation.
1538--Landgrave Philip of Hesse arranges debate between Anabaptists and Bucer; results in Hessian Anabaptists returning to state church and state church deciding to excommunicate immoral Christians. Calvin and Farel are banished from Geneva. Calvin goes to Strasbourg as pastor to the French-speaking congregation. Luther writes against the Jews and the Sabbatarians.
1539--Thomas Cranmer, the Archbishop of Canterbury, at the bequest of the King Henry VIII commissions Myles Coverdale to publish a large pulpit Bible. It became the first English Bible authorized for public use, distributed to every church and chained to the pulpit. The Great Bible was approved by Henry VIII: "sent abroad among the people" to be read by all and "set forth with the king's most gracious license". This Bible - mostly comprised of Tyndale's translation - was known as the "Great Bible" due to its great size: a large pulpit folio measuring over 14 inches tall. Seven editions of this version were printed between April of 1539 and December of 1541. Printers and sellers of books were encouraged to provide for the "free and liberal use of the Bible in our own maternal English tongue". By the decree of the king every church was to provide a reader so that the illiterate could hear the Word of God in their own tongue. It would seem that William Tyndale's last prayer had been granted three years after his martyrdom. The Six Articles, against Lutheranism. Hugh Latimer, bishop of Winchester, resigns in protest. Henry VIII is still occasionally burning Lutherans and hanging Roman Catholics. Henry VIII marries and divorces Anne of Cleves, executes the now-unpopular Thomas Cromwell, and marries Katherine Howard. Cardinal Sadeleto writes letter to Geneva. Calvin is asked to respond on behalf of Geneva. Frankfurt Truce declared between Catholic and Protestant territories.

1539-40--Simons publishes the Foundation Book of Anabaptist faith.
1540--Pope recognizes order of Jesuits; will make them the chief agents of Counter Reformation. Conferences at Hagenau and Worms fail to reconcile Protestants and Catholics
1541--John Calvin establishes theocracy in Geneva. John Knox establishes Calvinist Reformation in Scotland. Peter Riedeman writes Hutterite Confession of Faith. Henry VIII assumes titles of King of Ireland and Head of Irish Church. At Conference of Regensburg, Melanchthon and Bucer reach agreement with Catholics on most doctrines, but Luther and Rome reject their work. Calvin writes a treatise on free will against the Roman Catholic theologian Albert Pighius.
1543--Luther writes "On the Jews and Their Lies." Alliance between Henry and Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor) against Scotland and France. Council of Trent, for reform of Catholic Church, opens. Cranmer instructed to write prayers and a litany (for the army) in English. He does this so well that he is asked to make a prayer book in English, based on the service at Salisbury Cathedral.

1545--Henry VIII's last speech to Parliament; He says Papist, Lutheran, Anabaptist are names devised by the devil to sunder one man's heart from another. Luther writes Against the Papacy at Rome, who he named an Institution of the Devil. Peace of Augsburg allows rulers to determine religion of their region.
1546--Luther dies.
1547--Henry VIII dies.
1553--Edward VI dies; succeeded by Mary I ("Bloody Mary.")

Servetus, Spanish theologian and physician executed in Geneva as a heretic.
1554--Mary I marries Philip (later Philip II of Spain); Catholicism restored in England; Elizabeth is imprisoned. During Mary's reign, about 300 Protestants are burned, including 5 bishops, 100 priests, 60 women. John Rogers, Tyndale's close assistant (alias "Thomas Matthew"), is the first to burn. Protestants are forced into exile or hiding. An attempt by Cardinal Pole (Mary's archbishop of Canterbury) to restore monasticism fizzles when, among 1500 surviving monks, nuns, and friars, fewer than 100 are willing to return to celibacy. In the 1550's the Church in Switzerland was very sympathetic to the reformer refugees and was one of only a few safe havens for a desperate people. Many of them gathered in Geneva, led by Myles Coverdale and John Foxe as well as Thomas Sampson and William Whittingham. Over 200 including 8 pastors and 2 bishops found refuge in John Knox's congregation and there were many more English Protestants in exile elsewhere. There, with the protection of John Calvin, the Church of Geneva determined to produce a Bible that would educate their families while they continued in exile.

1555--Bishops Hugh Latimer and Nicholas Ridley are burned at the stake as Cranmer watches; Later John Hooper and John Bradford are also burned.
1556--Archbishop Thomas Cranmer, is forced to recant but later repudiates; He is burned at the stake.
1557--Publication of Geneva New Testament
1558--Mary I dies; succeeded by Elizabeth I. Defeat of Spanish Armada.
1560--Publication of Geneva Bible (complete Old and New Testament); This is the first time a Bible is printed with verse divisions.
1563--Thirty-Nine Articles drafted as a doctrinal statement by a convocation of the Church of England. John Foxe's publishes Acts & Monuments ("Foxe's Book of Martyrs"); to this day it remains the only exhaustive reference work on the persecution and martyrdom of Early Christians and Protestants from the first century up to the mid-16th century.
See this link for more information http://www.masters-table.org/reformation/foxesbook.htm

III. The Post-Reformation Period (1564 - 1689)
1564--The term "Puritan" first used and Calvin dies.
1577--Alliance between England and Netherlands; Francis Drake sails around the world. (to 1580)
1600--Elizabeth I grants charter to East India Company.
1603--Elizabeth I dies; James VI proclaimed King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, as James I.
1605--"Gunpowder plot"; Guy Fawkes and other Roman Catholic conspirators fail in attempt to blow up Parliament.
1607--Parliament rejects proposals for union between England and Scotland, and Colony of Virginia is founded at Jamestown by John Smith.
1611--Publication of King James Bible; Believed to be approximately 85% of the New Testament and the first half of the Old Testament are rendered as Tyndale translated them. English and Scottish Protestant colonists settle in Ulster.
1620--Separatists ("Pilgrims") land at Plymouth Rock on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, in the "Mayflower"; found New Plymouth.
1643--Scots adopt the Solemn League and Covenant.
1647--Westminster Assembly drafts Westminster Confession of Faith and the Larger and Shorter Catechisms.
1665--Great Plague in London.
1666--Great Fire of London.
1667--John Milton publishes Paradise Lost.
1670--Secret Treaty of Dover between Charles II of England and Louis XIV of France to restore Roman Catholicism to England.
1679--Act of Habeas Corpus passed, forbidding imprisonment without trial.
1687--James II issues Declaration of Liberty of Conscience, extends toleration to all religions.
1688--England's 'Glorious Revolution'; William III of Orange is invited to save England from Roman Catholicism, lands in England, James II flees to France.
1689--Convention Parliament issues Bill of Rights; establishes a constitutional monarchy in Britain; bars Roman Catholics from the throne; William III and Mary II become joint monarchs of England and Scotland (to1694), Toleration Act grants freedom of worship to dissenters in England.

Below you will find the "Argument" in its original wording from the Geneva Bible of 1560.

The Epistle To The Hebrews

The Argument:
"For as much as divers, both of the Greek writers and Latin's witness, that the writer of this Epistle for just causes would not have his name known, it were curiosity of our part to labor much therein. For seeing the Spirit of God is the author thereof, it diminisheth nothing the authority, although we know not with what pen he wrote it. Whether it were Paul (as it is not like) or Luke, or Barnabas, or Clement, or some other, his chief purpose is to persuade unto the Hebrews (whereby he principally meaneth them that abode at Jerusalem, and under them all the rest of the Jews) that Christ Jesus was not only the redeemer, but also that at his coming all ceremonies must have an end; for as much as his doctrine was the conclusion of all the prophecies, and therefore not only Moses was inferior to him, but also the Angels; for they all were servants, and he the Lord, but so Lord, that he hath also taken our flesh, and is made our brother to assure us of our salvation through himself; for he is that eternal Priest, whereof all the Levitical Priests were but shadows, and therefore at his coming they ought to cease, and all sacrifices for sin to be abolished, as he proveth from the seventh chapter verse eleven, unto the twelfth chapter verse eighteen. (Hebrews 7:11-12:18)

Also he was that Prophet of whom all the Prophets in time past witnessed, as is declared from the twelfth chapter, verse eighteen, to the twenty fifth verse of the same chapter; (Hebrews 12:18-25) yea, and is the King to whom all things are subject, as appeareth from verse twenty five, to the beginning of the last chapter. (Hebrews 12:25-13:1) Wherefore according to the examples of the old fathers we must constantly believe in him, that being sanctified by his justice, taught by his wisdom, and governed by his power, we may steadfastly, and courageously persevere even to the end in hope of that joy that is set before our eyes, occupying ourselves in Christian exercises that we may both be thankful to God, and dutiful to our neighbor."

I hope you found this information helpful in your studies and search for the truth.


In Jesus' Service
Timothy M. Youngblood
Author/webmaster of

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