Sacred Names

Research and Study By: Timothy M. Youngblood
Presented by: The Master's Table Web Site

God, Yehovah, Yehoshua, Yahweh, Lord, Y'shua, Iesous, Iesus, Jesus?

I have received a number of E-mail's and comments on social networks that we should not use the name "Jesus" because they claim it is pagan. Some teach that the name Jesus = Zeus in some way so I decided to do some research to learn the truth about this so I could have understanding on the subject and if it is true then I will also need to change. This research has also drawn me into the study of the many Names of God we find throughout the bible and if it's important to pronounce or spell His name in some EXACT manner in order to reach Him in prayer. I prayed and asked God to open my mind to the truth as I do all subjects and as always I would accept God's will and change my teaching on the subject.

I have researched this subject for about five weeks now and the first thing I must reveal is that I could not find any documents that backed up the Name Jesus = Zeus as you will find the origin of the Name "Jesus" in this research paper and after the many hours of research I have come to a conclusion on all the Names used for YHVH, God, Yehovah, Yehoshua, Lord, Y'shua, Yeshua, Iesous, Iesus, or Jesus which I will state later. All information here can be backed up with research sources and this research is in no way to promote any religion or church but more for information on the subject. (The bible student as always must decide what to do with the information.)

So the question we must ask and answer is are those that teach that we should not use the Names "God" or "Lord" correct and to what extent should we go while calling on the true Creator and Almighty One? I will reveal a question I asked God and the answer I received on into this paper and it will be written in "dark red" because of its importance. As most bible students know Aramaic was the language most used in Jerusalem at the time Jesus was born and during His life as a human on earth although a form of Hebrew was also used but was not the Paleo-Hebrew or "Ancient" Hebrew as you will find research information on this as you study here. We found that the Jerusalem Talmud predates its counterpart, the Babylonian Talmud (also known as the Talmud Bavli), by about 200 years and is written in both Hebrew and Jewish Palestinian Aramaic.

Its very important to note that the Hebrew nation was taken captive by Babylon for 70 years and they were not allowed to speak their native tongue so as a result the Hebrew people used Aramaic and that became their language even after the fall of the temple in 70 A. D. which is called Middle Aramaic, from 200 B.C. - 200 A.D. so it must have been the language spoken by Jesus, and is the language of large sections of the biblical books of Daniel and Ezra and is also the main language of the Talmud.

It's reported that scholars passed down knowledge of the correct pronunciation of YHVH for many generations, but eventually the correct pronunciation was lost, and we no longer know it with any certainty. We do not know what vowels were used, or even whether the Vav in the Name was a vowel or a consonant. Also I have found that all languages borrow from other languages and Hebrew, Latin, Aramaic, Greek, and English were no exception.

History of the Aramaic language.
Aramaic is the ancient language of the Semitic family group, which includes the Assyrians, Babylonians, Chaldeans, Arameans, Hebrews, and Arabs. In fact, a large part of the Hebrew and Arabic languages is borrowed from Aramaic, including the Alphabet. The modern Hebrew (square) script is called "Ashuri", and "Ashuri" is the Hebrew name for Assyrian, the name being used to signify the ancestor of the Assyrians, Ashur the son of Shem, the son of Noah (Genesis 10:22). We found that the first known inscriptions of Aramaic date to the late tenth or early ninth century B.C. and Aramaic spread over Palestine and Syria and large tracts of Asia and Egypt, replacing many languages, including Akkadian and Hebrew. For about one thousand years it served as the official and written language of the Near East, officially beginning with the conquests of the Assyrian Empire, which had adopted Aramaic as its official language, replacing Akkadian.

I used a translator of English to Arabic and found that when I entered the English Name "Jesus" on the English side and ask for the Arabic translation it gives me "Yeshua" which would be correct. The next portion of this study will make clear the question of Language and if the name of God must never change in its spelling or enunciation. The name used for the Name we know of as Jesus was Iesous (ee-ay-sooce') and is of Hebrew origin and is translated as "Jehoshus" or Joshua. The Name Jesus was spelled much different in John Wycliff's translations as we find in Matt. chapter one verse one Wycliff's translation of the year 1380 is "The book of the generacioun of Jhesu Crist, the sone of Dauid, the sone of Abraham."

In the translations of the work done in the Geneva bible of the year 1560 they use the same as in the translations of William Tyndale. If we read his translation of the same book and verse it reads... "This is the boke of the generacion of Iesus Christ the sonne of Dauid the sonne also of Abraham." Notice that William Tyndale used "Iesus" which is very close to the Hebrew Iesous and that was written around the 1530's. This next translation by Dr. John Wesley Etheridge is of the Western Peshitto from 1846-1849 (which is virtually the same as the Eastern Peshitta which reads..."THE RECORD of the generation of Jeshu (Jesus) the Meshicha, (Messiah) the son of David, son of Abraham."

It seems from the research I have done that the Hebrew name "Iesous" changed to "Jhesu" around 1380 and back to "Iesus" by William Tyndale in the 1530's and then to Jeshu around 1849 by Dr. John Wesley Etheridge. "Ie so us" is the Latin spelling for Jesus which later employed the letter "J" and derived from the Greek "Iesus" that Tyndale used. If we replace the "I" from Tyndale's word with the "J" we get the spelling "Jesus". I must note here that the letter "J" did not exist in the Hebrew, Arabic, Greek or Latin language! The Name "Jesus" could not begin with the letter "J" as this letter did not exist some 2,000 years ago. The letter "J" is only around 500 years old so although the spelling and enunciation changed, who it referred to never changed.

So we find according to scripture that His name would be called JESUS or in the "Hebrew" (Iesous.) in Matt 1:21, as it states… "And she will bring forth a Son, and you shall call His name Jesus, for He will save His people from their sins." There are also scripture in the New Testament that state we should receive some people, or even do things in the Name of the Messiah. Two noted scripture is found in Matt 18:5, "Whoever receives one little child like this "in My Name" receives Me." And Matt 18:20, "For where two or three are gathered together "in My Name", I am there in the midst of them." I looked up the word "Name" in these as well as many other New Testament text and found the true intent of the statement is "By the authority of The Messiah Jesus." So to pray in the Name of the Messiah Jesus is not some door to go through in order to reach God but would to be asking Him something according to His authority as God the Holy Father (Abba) gave Him.

Some are teaching that if we use the word "Lord" we are using a pagan name that was used for Baal and that would be disrespectful to God which if that was true I would have to agree. When we look at the word "Lord" we need to consider if the word is only from pagan origin and not that the pagans borrowed the Name or meaning from the Old Testament. I have researched this word "Lord" in detail and found it interesting that the term "Lord" is aw-done' or "Adoni" which means Master or sovereign Ruler. So far I have not found the word "Lord" to be pagan although the pagans did use it however it has been used to refer to "A Lord" like the King or some high ranking member of the crown which in no way makes the word pagan as we will soon understand why.

The Hebrew term for God is "EL". El = GOD. The usage of "EL" was also combined with other words to describe God or to identify the nature and functions of God in some manner according to what we found. We have a number of God's Name from the Old Testament that shows this very thing at the end of this study. Thus the expression "God", like the God of Israel to clarify the creator from the false gods as we see in Genesis 33:18-20 that identified the specific activities of Israel's God. It states..."Then Jacob came safely to the city of Shechem, which is in the land of Canaan, when he came from Padan Aram; and he pitched his tent before the city. And he bought the parcel of land, where he had pitched his tent, from the children of Hamor, Shechem's father, for one hundred pieces of money. Then he erected an altar there and called it El Elohe Israel." Strong's (415) 'El 'elohey Yisra'el which means The mighty God of Israel.

Our research has found that knowledge of the character and attributes of pagan “gods” was thought to enable the worshipers to manipulate or influence the deities in a more effective way than they could have if the deity's name remained unknown. I just want to be very sure I'm not using or teaching a pagan god's name to refer to the true God of Heaven so let's continue the research. Now I did find that the word Adonay (ad-o-noy') is used as a proper name of God but the Name aw-done' seems to be correct also and as long as it's used in relation to respect for God and the term Master or sovereign Ruler is used in relation to the Creator God I don't see a problem. We find in Gen. chapter one that the first form of the Divine name in the Bible is ‘Elohim’, and is in most cases translated “God” (Genesis 1:1). Elohim is the most frequently used name in the Old Testament for “God” however Theos is what we find in the New Testament which is a Greek word for the Almighty. Although the languages of Greek and Hebrew are very different the basic definition for "Elohim" and "Theos" are identical in use and meaning which are "Master" or very importantly... Sovereign Almighty Creator God. Latin for God is Deus, Irish and Gaelic Dia, all of which means the same, Sovereign Almighty Creator God.

Let's do some more research into this so we can get to the truth. We find in II Sam. 7:18 three important words being used. The word to be "O Lord" and this word "Lord" is translated as Yehovah (yeh-ho-vaw'); which means self-Existent or Eternal and Yehovah is the Jewish national name of God and means O Lord. We find that in this same scripture King David not only stated "Lord" and "O Lord" but he also wrote the word "God" but the word used in the Hebrew is Yehovih (yeh-ho-vee') and has the (vee') sound at the end in order to prevent the repetition of the same sound, since they pronounce it yeh-ho-vaw' and 'Adonay (ad-o-noy'); elsewhere referring to God but using the word Lord or O Lord.

In Deut 10:17 we find another good example as it states... "For the LORD your God is God of gods and Lord of lords, the great God, mighty and awesome, who shows no partiality nor takes a bribe."

Now let's look at the Names here that refer to what we know is the creator and that which would refer to any other that is named "lord" or "god" as one that is not the Lord or the true God. The first term "Lord" as the Almighty is also Yehovah (yeh-ho-vaw'); and the term "God" as the Almighty is 'elohiym (el-o-heem'); and is of the plural meaning but also the supreme God which being SUPREME means He is the Creator God.

Now what about statements of those in this scripture which clearly refers to those that are lesser than the Almighty? The words used in this scripture as "god" and "lord" as a lesser god or lord is first (haa lohiym) meaning a lesser god is used as in Deut 10:17, and (haa adoniym) gives us a great understanding because these words do not have the "EL" before them. The root name for God in the Old Testament is "El" and by itself it refers to a god in the most general sense. It was widely used in ancient eastern cultures whose languages are similar to Hebrew and therefore may refer either to the true God or to some false gods.

If you have a copy of the Pentateuch (The five book of Moses) go in the front of the book and read the page titled "On the Names of God" and its translation. It states that the Name of God has undergone numerous changes in both its writing and translation throughout the history of the bible. It states around the second paragraph …"Both old and new attempts to recover the "correct" pronunciation of the Hebrew name have not succeeded." Neither the sometimes-heard "Yehovah" nor the standard scholarly "Yahweh" can be conclusively proven. Also we must remind those that insist on the Name "Jehovah"that the letter "J" did not exist!

As stated above the Hebrew nation was taken captive by Babylon for 70 years and they were not allowed to speak their native tongue so as a result the Hebrew people used Aramaic and some religious scholars suggest that the Name was pronounced "Yahweh". Some Christian scholars render the four-letter Name "YHVH" as "Jehovah", but this pronunciation is particularly unlikely as we have noted so where did this name come from? We found in our research that the word "Jehovah" comes from the practice of writing YHVH in the Hebrew Bible with the vowels of the Name "Adonai" as we covered before. It is reported that a sixteenth century German scribe of the Catholic church, while transliterating the Bible into Latin for the Pope, wrote the Name out as it appeared in his texts, with the consonants of YHVH and the vowels of Adonai, and came up with the word JeHoVaH, and the name stuck."

The Mishnah or Mishna is the first major written redaction of the Jewish oral traditions called the "Oral Torah" and is the first major work of Rabbinic Judaism and this book confirms that there was no prohibition against pronouncing The Name in ancient times. However, by the time of the Talmud, it was the custom to use substitute Names for God. Some rabbis asserted that a person who pronounces YHVH according to its letters (instead of using a substitute) has no place in the World to Come, and should be put to death. Instead of pronouncing the four-letter Name, they usually substitute the Name "Adonai"; but sometimes they substitute "Elohim" when YHVH which comes either immediately before or after the name "Adonai" itself. Unlike the Talmud the majority of the Mishnah is written in Hebrew, while the Talmuds are written in "Judeao-Aramaic." Research shows that European scholars over the past 1,000 years have termed this 'Mishnaic Hebrew'. The Mishnah does not claim to be the development of new laws, but rather the collection of existing traditions.

Paleo-Hebrew or "Ancient" - Hebrew is an offshoot of the ancient Semitic language and some Paleo-Hebrew fragments of the Torah were found among the Dead Sea Scrolls. The Paleo-Hebrew alphabet was preserved mainly for writing the Tanakh. The Tanakh consist of the Torah, (The five books of Moses) the Nevi'im (The Prophets.) and the Kethuvim which is called the writings. I have owned a "Tanakh" since the Feast of Tabernacles of 1987 and the Tanakh uses the written Names of God as "Lord" and "God" with the qualifier being a capital "L" or "G" so it seems that the controversy concerning "Sacred Names" and some Jews being that we can't be saved into the kingdom of God as they insist we should use the language from the Talmud when the Mishnah confirms that there was no prohibition against pronouncing The Name of God in ancient times. So the thing I'm trying to find from this research is if salvation has anything to do with how we use God's name like "YHVH" for "God" or "Yeshua" for "Jesus" or the term "Yehovah" for "Lord" as "The Almighty" or should we use some other Name correctly so as to not be disrespectful to God?

Several other important names of God identify Him as Branch, King, Wisdom, Shepherd, Lamb, and Servant and in the Jewish or Hebrew thought a name is not merely an arbitrary designation. The name conveys the nature and essence of which is named; It represents the history and reputation of the one being named. An example of this usage occurs in Exod. 3:13-22: Moses asks God what His Name is". Moses is not asking "what should I call you"; but more like asking "who are you; what are you like; what have you done". That is clear from God's response as we will find on into this study about the answer being "I Am that I Am". (YHVH) is often referred to as the Ineffable Name or the Unutterable Name so my question is if it's an Unutterable Name why did God utter it to mankind? My question is with all the Names we have at the end of this paper which one is to be used to contact of relate to the creator? As stated above nothing in the Mishnah prohibits a person from pronouncing the Name of God. Indeed, it is evident from scripture that God's Name was pronounced routinely. Many common Hebrew names contain "Yah" or "Yahu", part of God's four-letter Name and the Name was pronounced as part of daily services in the Temple.

Let's compare the Paleo-Hebrew Alphabet with the Aramaic and Phoenician Alphabets.

... ...

The first chart is the Phoenician Alphabet, the middle chart is the Paleo-Hebrew Alphabet, and the last is the Aramaic Alphabet.

We can see by these charts above that the alphabets are very much alike so this tells us that the Paleo-Hebrew Alphabet is very much like the Aramaic. Also I have been reminded that in the book of John chapter 19 verses 19-20 Pilate wrote JESUS OF NAZARETH, THE KING OF THE JEWS and he wrote this inscription in three languages which according to the Kings James version were Hebrew, Greek, and Latin. This concerned me because my research has shown that the language spoken during the period Jesus was born till long after His death and resurrection was Aramaic so how could it be that the inscription read in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin and not in Aramaic, Greek, and Latin? The answer is in the charts above and the research I have found is that the word "Hebrew" here is actually "Hebrais" which was the Jewish language or tongue and was in fact a form of Aramaic spoken for years and during the time Jesus preached the Gospel message.

The interesting thing is I went to John Wycliffe’s translation of 1380 and found he used an interesting word for “Hebrew” in this scripture which was Ebreu (עִבְרִית) as you can read here in Wycliffe's own Old English. It states…"Therfor manye of the Jewis redden this title, for the place where Jhesus was crucified, was niy the citee, and it was writun in Ebreu, Greek, and Latyn." I looked up this word Ebreu (עִבְרִית) and found that the Definition is Old English and is from the Old Latin Hebraeus so the word we looked at above is consistent with the meaning used even as far back as 1380 which was the Jewish language and was in fact Aramaic.

Here is the point that we all should understand.
Let's get to the root of the question by asking if I say to you "Shalom" and you know it means "Peace to you" what would be the difference if I stated to someone Peace to you in German or Dutch? It would convey the same in any language regardless of its spelling or enunciation. The person that understands that language will understand that you mean that you hope they will not have conflict or distress in their efforts or life. So this makes the point that language is a form of communication. That understood we can now understand the communication God intended concerning His many Names. After doing this research I have found what I have always believed to be true which is that it is not a sin to pray to God using the Name (Elohim) or (God) It is not a sin to use the Greek name (Christ) or the Hebrew name (Messiah) as both mean the (Anointed One.) or the Greek word “Theos.” for the Name God as it means the same thing as The Almighty One that is our creator and not only that He is life giving, but He has life inherent.

I have not found a single command from the Holy Father or the Messiah Himself to anyone at all that we MUST never change the spelling or enunciation of their Names. In fact I asked The Holy Father to reveal to me how I'm to know His real name if it is important and the answer I received is... If one could know the exact spelling and enunciation "Adam and Eve" used when referring to the Creator Who personally taught them in the garden then one would know and be able to pronounce the correct name. I realized that there was not a single record of not only the exact spelling and enunciation of their creator but the language they spoke has never been revealed and many very important facts about this subject were also made known to me as a result!

Yes I found the undeniable fact that He has many names and the Names of God has always referred to "Who God is" and what He is doing. His names referred to His character and in some cases His intent such as in Deut 5:9, God is given the title "Jealous" (qanna'), most specifically in the phrase "Yahweh, whose name is Jealous" Exodus 34:14. This word, however, did not bear the bad meaning associated with it in our usage today, but rather signified "righteous zeal," or God's zeal for His own name or for His own glory.

Glory is one of His names as well. God is described as Glory (Shekinah) in Exodus 16:7; and Psalm 104:31; and Isaiah 60:1. And in the New Testament Jesus shares the glory of God as we read in Matt. 25:31; 1 Cor. 2:8; and Heb. 1:3. He is known as Father in Matt. 5:16; and Abba in Mark 14:36; and Gal. 4:6. Jesus is also known as the Son in Matt. 11:27, and Son of God John 9:35 as well as Son of man in Matt. 8:20 and the Messiah as recorded John 1:41, or Lord in Rom. 14:8, and The Word as we read in John 1:1; and Shepherd in John 10:11, or The Vine in John 15:1, and very importantly we find Jesus referring to Himself as the "I AM" in John 1:23. I have heard those that use "Sacred Names" use the word "Father" many times so why aren't they using "Abba" instead? Even in the new translation "Aramaic to English New Testament by Andrew Roth use the English word "Father" to denote the Most Holy mighty One.

Let's look at this name of God "I AM" from the Old Testament and find the understanding of the fact that His names are there to convey Who and what God is. As you read the below information keep in mind that Jesus stated in John 1:23 that He is the "I AM"

(This information below is from Nelson's Illustrated Bible Dictionary)
Yahweh. One of the most important names for God in the Old Testament is Yahweh, or Yehovah, from the verb "to be," meaning simply but profoundly, "I am who I am," and "I will be who I will be." The four-letter Hebrew word YHWH was the name by which God revealed Himself to Moses in the burning bush (Ex. 3:14). The Thomas Nelson commentary states that this bush was a vivid symbol of the inexhaustible dynamism of God who burns like a fire with love and righteousness, yet remains the same and never diminishes. Some English translations of the Bible translate the word as Jehovah, while others use Yahweh. God is the author of life and salvation. His "I am" expresses the fact that He is the infinite and original personal God who is behind everything and to whom everything must finally be traced. This name, "I am who I am," signals the truth that nothing else defines who God is but God Himself. What He says and does is who He is." (Copyright (C) 1986, Thomas Nelson Publishers)

Now let's look at the Names of Satan and evil spirits and see what they mean. (I will just add here what I already researched and placed in the fifth chapter of my book The Great Apostasy.)

Even the evil spirits names have meaning!
Satan was an archangel named Lucifer, which means "Son of the morning" and he was one of the most beautiful created beings God designed, full of light and wonderful song, and that was more fantastic than we have ever seen or can imagine in our limited minds. Historically God has also named things by what they are and as Lucifer means "Light bringer" he became "Satan" which means the "Great adversary," of God and man when he fell. This is the second name given to the prince of the "Devils", as another name is "Diabolos" or Devil meaning "slanderer" or false accuser. It also means one who casts either himself or someone else, between two in order to separate them, and one that sows discord. Another old name for Satan is the "serpent", or "Darkon" meaning dragon.

Serpent, or dragon worship is non-other than devil worship, and the year 2000 was named as the year of the dragon by the Chinese and from that time we have seen the serpent become popular among our children wearing symbols of the dragon on tee-shirts, ornaments and jewelry. You might want to read our article about Harry Potter titled "God and Sorcery." Other titles by which Satan is identified in the New Testament include "the tempter" because he is the one that tempts mankind to sin. 1 Thes. 3:5; and "Beelzebub" Matt. 12:24 and "the wicked one" Matt. 13:19-38.

Many people don't realize that Satan is the ruler of this world as we find in John 12:31; and Satan is also called "the god of this age" in 2 Cor. 4:4; and the bible declares, "The whole world lies under the sway of the wicked one" 1 John 5:19. He is called "Belial" and the prince of the power of the air" because he can broadcast thoughts and moods through the air to our minds just like radio waves. Eph. 2:2; Satan is also called "the accuser of our brethren" because he points out to God how evil we are and that we should be destroyed as we read in Rev. 12:10.

Because God names things what they are we can see who Satan is today.
So we see by this study that as stated above language is for the purpose of conveying information to one another and that is no different with the names of God as we have seen they convey to us who and what God is and what He is doing in the creation. God is love so how do I say that in order to make all people in different languages understand? I say it in their tongue that's how!

Think about this fact… If we had to not only know every name of God and the meaning but also pronounce them "Exactly" as intended we would not be able to contact God correct? The research we have covered shows us that Scholars passed down knowledge of the correct pronunciation of YHVH for many generations, but eventually the correct pronunciation was lost, and we no longer know it with any certainty. It is not wrong to pronounce the Name of God the way one wants as long as the intended meaning is directed at the Creator and the Holy Father. The question is that if God was so concerned about the EXACT spelling and pronunciation of His name I would think that He would have surly passed that down with a command and someone who could teach the Names with the correct Enunciation's. Also never forget that salvation can only come by believing in and accepting the sacrifice of Jesus the Messiah and if salvation could come any other way the Messiah is dead in vain.

What about the scripture in Jer. 23:26-27? "How long shall this be in the heart of the prophets that prophesy lies? yea, they are prophets of the deceit of their own heart which think to cause my people to forget my name by their dreams which they tell every man to his neighbor, as their fathers have forgotten my name for Baal.

This term "My Name" here is "shem" or "shame" and is an appellation as a mark or memorial of individuality, (by implication honor, authority, character) which could very well be that the reference is to using God's name in relation to Baal as we know from our research that the Christian religion is full of Baal worship thus the statement in Jer 23:26-27.

I know that many will have their own explanation for why this research is not valid but the one thing I have learned in my 62 years is that we humans have a bad habit of self-deception. My wife stated to me one day that people say they want the truth till they find that it does not go along with their beliefs."

I will end this study where Paul stated to Timothy, "If anyone teaches otherwise and does not consent to wholesome words, even the words of our Lord Jesus Christ, and to the doctrine which accords with godliness, he is proud, knowing nothing, but is obsessed with disputes and arguments over words, from which come envy, strife, reviling, evil suspicions, useless wranglings of men of corrupt minds and destitute of the truth, who suppose that godliness is a means of gain. From such withdraw yourself." 1-Timothy 6:3-5

The names of God revealed to ancient Israel in Old Testament times are listed below and here you will find that each Name described God as Who He is and what He is doing.

YHVH (or Yahweh) The Living One. Exodus 3:14-15 "And God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM: and he said, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me to you. And God said moreover to Moses, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, The LORD God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath sent me unto you: this is my name for ever, and this is my memorial unto all generations." YHVH (Jehovah) was the name of the God of Israel. Translated LORD in the English Bible, the Hebrew name contained only four letters YHVH. Since no vowels have passed down to us in history we do not know how the four letters were pronounced. The name was spoken by the high priest once per year on Yom Kippur, the Great Day of Atonement. Genesis 4:26 "Then men began to call on the name of the LORD." - Jehovah is the Hebrew word Yahweh which comes from the root "hayah" which means to be, to exist, or have life. - Isaiah 43:10-11 There was no god before Yahweh or after Yahweh. - Psalm 102:27 Yahweh's years had no beginning and will have no end. - Yahweh is the name of the living Elohim - To know the name Yahweh was a special revelation, impossible to know if He was not revealed, Exodus 6:2-3. Yahweh is the God of revelation. - Every nation had gods (elohim) but Yahweh was the God of Israel and the only living God. Psalm 86:11 David says that Yahweh alone is Elohim. Also in 2 Chronicles 14:11 Israel cried out to "Yahweh our Elohim." - Exodus 3:15 Yahweh is his name forever.

Elohim The All Powerful. Genesis 1:1 "In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth." - Elohim is translated "God" in the English Bible and is a plural noun, although it is used with singular verbs and adjectives. For example in Genesis 1:1 it says that Elohim (plural noun) created (singular verb) the heavens and the earth.

El Elyon The Highest One. Genesis 14:19 "Blessed be Abram of God Most High, Possessor of heaven and earth" - Reveals God's relationship with those who are not Abram's seed. - God is the highest of those created in His image. Gen 1:26 says he created mankind after his own likeness, "Likeness" means exact duplication in kind" - Balaam (gentile) referred to God as El Elyon, When Moses spoke of God's sovereignty over the nations he referred to God as El Elyon. The Book of Daniel was written in Babylon and mentions God throughout as El Elyon. - Other mentions of higher are: Deuteronomy 26:19 Nation high above all nations, Psalm 89:27 King higher than other kings, Ezekiel 41:7 Chamber higher than other chambers - A different word is used when it says that the heavens are higher than the earth (Isaiah 55:9), and the clouds are higher than a man (Job 35:5).

El Olam The God of Times and Seasons. Genesis 21:33 "Then Abraham planted a tamarisk tree in Beersheba, and there called on the name of the LORD, the Everlasting God." - God is eternal and in every age, every generation, and within every new season to work His eternal purpose. El Olam is the God who works His will not all at once but through varied times and seasons. - Age to age, generation to generation, forever speaks of a season that has a beginning and an end. - God had a purpose before the ages that he would bring a redeemer, out of the fall of man He would bring about a greater glory for Himself and his fallen children.

El Roi The God who sees Me. Genesis 16:13 "And she called the name of the LORD that spake unto her, Thou God seest me: for she said, Have I also here looked after him that seeth me?" - God sees our hearts, He knows all things. He sees when we are in need and when we cry out to Him he hears. - God also sees the wicked who do not think that God sees them. He not only sees them but knows their thoughts and intents. Isaiah 29:15 - "Woe unto them that seek deep to hide their counsel from the LORD, and their works are in the dark, and they say, Who seeth us? and who knoweth us?"

El Shaddai The One Who Blesses. Genesis 17:1 "When Abram was ninety years old and nine, the LORD appeared to Abram, and said unto him, "I AM" the Almighty God; walk before me, and be thou perfect."It is believed by some scholars that El is the male God who is omnipotent and Shaddai is the female plural, which reveals both male and female in God. - Shad means breast, and as the breast nourishes the child and imparts the life of the mother, so El Shaddai speaks of God as the bountiful nourisher, and blesser of mankind. - El Shaddai sets aside the laws of nature to bountifully bless. - Abraham was advanced in years and wondered about God's promise that he would bear a son, and God revealed himself as El Shaddai, who can set apart the laws of nature to abundantly bless. - He is also the God of the wrath of the almighty.

Yahweh Jireh The LORD will Provide. Genesis 22:14 "And Abraham called the name of the place, The-LORD-Will-Provide; as it is said to this day, "In the Mount of the LORD it shall be provided." - When the LORD sees a need He makes provision. He will see to it. - Provision comes from two Latin words meaning to "see beforehand" - Regarding Genesis 22 one medieval rabbi put it this way: God will manifest Himself to His people. "In the Mount of the LORD it shall be provided" "God will provide himself a lamb" - John 8:56-58 "Your father Abraham rejoiced to see my day: and he saw [it], and was glad. Then said the Jews unto him, Thou art not yet fifty years old, and hast thou seen Abraham? Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Before Abraham was, I AM." - Exodus 12:23 - "For the LORD will pass through to smite the Egyptians; and when he seeth the blood upon the lintel, and on the two side posts, the LORD will pass over the door, and will not suffer the destroyer to come in unto your houses to smite you."

Yahweh Mikadishkim The LORD who Sanctifies. Leviticus 20:8 "And you shall keep My statutes, and perform them: I AM the LORD who sanctifies you." - The Bible says that our approach to Him is based on blood atonement because He is holy. Because of the blood God makes us holy, he sets us apart, and redeems us. - God is holy and sanctifies His people: Exodus 31:12-13 "And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, Speak thou also unto the children of Israel, saying, Verily my sabbaths ye shall keep: for it [is] a sign between me and you throughout your generations; that ye may know that I AM the LORD that doth sanctify you." - Jesus said His followers would be sanctified by the Word John 17:17 "Sanctify them through thy truth: thy word is truth."

Yahweh Nissi The LORD is my Banner. Exodus 17:15-16 "And Moses built an altar and called its name, The-LORD-Is-My-Banner; for he said, "Because the LORD has sworn: the LORD will have war with Amalek from generation to generation." - In the ancient world a banner was a physical object like a pole or ensign to signal the people. - God will over come all the enemies of Israel and his messiah will be a banner to Israel and the gentiles. Isaiah 11:10 "And in that day there shall be a root of Jesse, which shall stand for an ensign of the people; to it shall the Gentiles seek: and his rest shall be glorious."

Yahweh Rapha The LORD Who Heals. Exodus 15:26 "If you diligently heed the voice of the LORD your God and do what is right in His sight, give ear to His commandments and keep all His statutes, I will put none of the diseases on you which I have brought on the Egyptians. For I am the LORD who heals you." - God is the healer. - Man's rebellion brought sin and sickness. - God heals all sin and sickness. Psalm 103:2 "Bless the LORD, O my soul, and forget not all his benefits: Who forgiveth all thine iniquities; who healeth all thy diseases" - God heals backsliding Israel and all backsliders. Jeremiah 3:21 "A voice was heard upon the high places, weeping [and] supplications of the children of Israel: for they have perverted their way, [and] they have forgotten the LORD their God. Return, ye backsliding children, [and] I will heal your backslidings."

Yahweh Rohi The LORD my Shepherd. Psalm 23:1 "The LORD is my shepherd; I shall not want." - The LORD is our shepherd, he leads, protects, and cares for His people. He is a shepherd to Israel: Jeremiah 31:10 - Hear the word of the LORD, O ye nations, and declare it in the isles afar off, and say, He that scattered Israel will gather him, and keep him, as a shepherd doth his flock. - Mankind's need for the shepherd: Isaiah 53:6 "All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every one to his own way; and the LORD hath laid on him the iniquity of us all. He was oppressed, and he was afflicted, yet he opened not his mouth: he is brought as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers is dumb, so he openeth not his mouth." - Prediction of the Messiah to Come as a Shepherd: Isaiah 40:10-11 "Behold, the Lord GOD will come with strong hand, and his arm shall rule for him: behold, his reward is with him, and his work before him. He shall feed his flock like a shepherd: he shall gather the lambs with his arm, and carry them in his bosom, and shall gently lead those that are with young." (Jesus is the Lamb of God)

Yahweh Sabaoth The LORD of Hosts. Isaiah 14:22 "For I will rise up against them, saith the LORD of hosts, and cut off from Babylon the name, and remnant, and son, and nephew, saith the LORD." - The LORD is commander of the armies in heaven. Psalms 24:10 - Who is this King of glory? The LORD of hosts, he is the King of glory. Selah. - David and Goliath 1 Samuel 17:43-45 "And the Philistine said unto David, [Am] I a dog, that thou comest to me with staves? And the Philistine cursed David by his gods. And the Philistine said to David, Come to me, and I will give thy flesh unto the fowls of the air, and to the beasts of the field. Then said David to the Philistine, Thou comest to me with a sword, and with a spear, and with a shield: but I come to thee in the name of the LORD of hosts, the God of the armies of Israel, whom thou hast defied." - The Lord of Hosts will fight for His people Isaiah 31:4 - For thus hath the LORD spoken unto me, Like as the lion and the young lion roaring on his prey, when a multitude of shepherds is called forth against him, [he] will not be afraid of their voice, nor abase himself for the noise of them: so shall the LORD of hosts come down to fight for mount Zion, and for the hill thereof. - The Lord of Hosts is dreadful among the Gentiles Malachi 1:14 "But cursed be the deceiver, which hath in his flock a male, and voweth, and sacrificeth unto the Lord a corrupt thing: for I am a great King, saith the LORD of hosts, and my name is dreadful among the heathen."

Yahweh El- Rachuwm The Lord God who is compassionate: or full of compassion and is merciful. Exod 34:5-7: "Now the LORD descended in the cloud and stood with him there, and proclaimed the name of the LORD and the LORD passed before him and proclaimed, "The LORD, the LORD God, merciful and gracious, longsuffering, and abounding in goodness and truth, "keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin, by no means clearing the guilty, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children and the children's children to the third and the fourth generation."

Yahweh Shalom The LORD is Peace. Judges 6:23-24 "Then the LORD said to him, "Peace be with you; do not fear, you shall not die." So Gideon built an altar there to the LORD, and called it The-LORD-Is-Peace." - When Gideon built his altar there was no peace in Israel, only God's promise. - The LORD brings peace, wholeness, contentment, and prosperity. - Jesus is called the Prince of Peace Isaiah 9:6 - "For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counselor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace."

Yahweh Shammah The LORD is There. Ezekiel 48:35 "and the name of the city from that day shall be: THE LORD IS THERE." - God revealed through Ezekiel that after the New heavens, New Earth and New Jerusalem conmes down from heaven His name will be Yahweh Shammah. - David acknowledged that the LORD is ever present: Psalm 46:1-3 "God is our refuge and strength, a very present help in trouble. Therefore will not we fear, though the earth be removed, and though the mountains be carried into the midst of the sea; Though the waters thereof roar and be troubled, though the mountains shake with the swelling thereof. Selah." - Jesus promised His disciples that He would be with them always: Matthew 28:20 "lo, I am with you always, even unto the end of the world. Amen." Revelation 21:1-3 "And I saw a new heaven and a new earth: for the first heaven and the first earth were passed away; and there was no more sea. And I John saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband. And I heard a great voice out of heaven saying, Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men, and he will dwell with them, and they shall be his people, and God himself shall be with them, and be their God."

Yahweh Tsidkenu The LORD our Righteousness. Jeremiah 23:5-6 "Behold, the days are coming," says the LORD, "That I will raise to David a Branch of Righteousness; A King shall reign and prosper, And execute judgment and righteousness in the earth. In His days Judah will be saved, And Israel will dwell safely; Now this is His name by which He will be called: THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS." - The LORD is a righteous (straight) God, and the source of righteousness. - The LORD is our source for righteousness Ezekiel 36:25-27 "Then will I sprinkle clean water upon you, and ye shall be clean: from all your filthiness, and from all your idols, will I cleanse you. A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you: and I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you an heart of flesh. And I will put my spirit within you, and cause you to walk in my statutes, and ye shall keep my judgments, and do them." - In the New testament Jesus is our source for righteousness. 2 Corinthians 5:21 "For he hath made him [to be] sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him."

Adonai The Sovereign Ruler. Genesis 15:2 - "But Abram said, "Lord GOD, what will You give me, seeing I go childless" Adonai is a plural possessive noun meaning "my Lords" - Adonai reveals God's Mastership, ownership, kingship, sovereignty and rulership over mankind. - Whenever adon is used in the Bible for mankind it is translated as 'master', 'sir', or 'lord'. For example Abraham's servant Eliezer says 'my master Abraham'. - David reveals Yahweh as talking to Adonai in the Psalms 110:1. - The Bible says that the fear of Adonai is wisdom. Isaiah 40:10 "Behold, the Lord GOD will come with strong hand, and his arm shall rule for him: behold, his reward is with him, and his work before him."

If you would like to read more on the Sacred Names you can find some research by Kenneth & Brian Hoeck from Truth on the web ministries by clicking on this link below.

http://www.truthontheweb.org/names.htm

Regards:
Timothy Youngblood
Author/webmaster
http://www.masters-table.org